PERMACULTURE
SWALE




MAY
PERMACULTURE
MONTH




WHAT ARE SWALES?

HOW TO DIG SWALES

PERMACULTURE SWALE RELATED TOPICS

SWALE CONTRUCTION

BERMS AND SWALES

PERMACULTURE SWALE LINKS

PRINCIPLES OR PERMACULTURE



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SECTION 1



WHAT ARE
SWALES?


A 'swale' is simply a long, shallow depression in the ground, designed
to collect or redirect water. In general, permaculture swales are used
to mimic the water-collecting and -holding abilities of a thick forest
mulch.

Swales are most useful in reforestation of degraded, mostly-bare, arid
or semi-arid hillsides, to direct water to trees (this water would
otherwise run off the bare soil and be lost to the local landscape).
In a healthy forest with a thick mulch of leaves or needles covering the
ground, very little runoff occurs and swales would usually be unnecessary.
A healthy forest is very good at managing its own water resources—if it
ain't broke, spend your time fixing something that is.


For permacultural purposes, there are three main types of swale used in
water-management earthworks:

on-contour, water-harvesting permaculture swales;

gently sloped water-transporting swales (or diversion ditches);

soil conservation swales (a modified form of diversion ditch).

Each of these types of swale behaves differently and is useful in
different situations.



Swale
permaculture-and-sanity.com/pcarticles/permaculture-earthworks-and-swales.php



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SECTION 2



HOW TO
DIG SWALES




Swales are an excellent technique in rainwater harvesting.
They capture surface runoff and send it deep into the aquifer,
both nourishing trees and reducing erosion. The berms beneath
them make great fertile planting beds. And best of all, swales
can be dug by hand and cost you nothing.



How to Dig Swales
https://www.wikihow.com/Dig-Swales



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SECTION 3



PERMACULTURE SWALE
RELATED
TOPICS




Create a Permaculture Garden
https://www.wikihow.com/Create-a-Permaculture-Garden

Build a Rainwater Collection System
https://www.wikihow.com/Build-a-Rainwater-Collection-System

Create a Rain Garden
https://www.wikihow.com/Create-a-Rain-Garden

Reduce Stormwater Runoff at Your Home
https://www.wikihow.com/Reduce-Stormwater-Runoff-at-Your-Home

Build a Dry Stack Retaining Rock Wall
https://www.wikihow.com/Build-a-Dry-Stack-Retaining-Rock-Wall

Clear Land
https://www.wikihow.com/Clear-Land

Build a Berm
https://www.wikihow.com/Build-a-Berm

Clear Land by Hand
https://www.wikihow.com/Clear-Land-by-Hand

Xeriscape
https://www.wikihow.com/Xeriscape

Build a Living Fence
https://www.wikihow.com/Build-a-Living-Fence

Landscape
https://www.wikihow.com/Landscape



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SECTION 4



SWALE
CONTRUCTION




A swale is a mainframe construct used in permaculture systems.
It is a water harvesting and tree-growing system.



It consists of 3 main parts:

A berm,

a trench

a back cut.



A swale is placed in a strategic location in the landscape to allow
it to capture as much water as possible. The way this is achieved
is by placing the swale on contour. That means the swale is level
all the way across.



Swale Contruction
https://austinpermaculture.com/tag/swale-construction/



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SECTION 5



BERMS
AND
SWALES




In the simplest terms, permaculture-style berms and swales can be defined
as a ditch, on contour. The swale is the ditch. It is designed to hold
water, sinking it down into the landscape and temporarily raising the
water table. The berm is a small hill, constructed on the downhill side
of the swale, which increases the amount of water that can be retained.



Berms and Swales
http://directoryofpermaculture.com/permaculture-concepts/berms-and-swales/



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The Permaculture
Research
Institute

https://permaculturenews.org/




How to Build a Bio-Swale
(and Why You Should Want To!)

https://modernfarmer.com/2015/11/how-to-build-bio-swale/




How to
Build Swales

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3X5YYHiyVMM




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Simple hand dug swales catch
and divert most of the ground
water on our property

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XQLs6gnWqVg




Swales in Landscape:
Permaculture Design

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RhHu8YFPYvg




Swale
Rain Garden

How To
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iAY5jixv0Gc




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SECTION 6



PERMACULTURE
SWALES
LINKS







How to Build a Grassy Drainage Swale
https://www.handymanhowto.com/making-a-grassy-drainage-swale/

How to Build a Permaculture Swale Planting Bed
https://www.growforagecookferment.com/how-to-build-a-permaculture-swale-planting-bed/

How to build swale
https://www.tenthacrefarm.com/how-to-build-swale/

How to build swale
https://www.tenthacrefarm.com/how-to-build-swale/

How to Build a Swale in the Residential Landscape
https://www.tenthacrefarm.com/how-to-build-swale/

How to build a swale on contour successfully
https://permaculturenews.org/2015/07/24/how-to-build-a-swale-on-contour-successfully/

How to Create a Drainage Swale
https://www.thisoldhouse.com/how-to/how-to-create-drainage-swale

How to Dig a Swale in the Yard
https://homeguides.sfgate.com/dig-swale-yard-53088.html

Rainwater Harvesting: Berms and Swales
http://santacruzpermaculture.com/2019/08/berms-swales/

Six steps to building a swale
https://www.regenerative.com/magazine/six-steps-building-swale

Swale Calculator
https://www.permaculturereflections.com/swale-calculator/

Swales A Permaculture Practice
https://greatescapefarms.com/swales-a-permaculture-practice/

Swales in a Pattern Reflection
https://treeyopermacultureedu.com/chapter-9-earth-working-and-earth-resources/permaculture-swales/

Swales? Or Not to Swale?
https://worldpermacultureassociation.com/swales-or-not-to-swale/

Urban Swales
https://vergepermaculture.ca/2016/06/29/urban-swales/

Water Management For Every Permaculture Farm
https://permacultureapprentice.com/permaculture-water-management/



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SECTION 7



WHAT ARE SOME
PRINCIPLES OR
PERMACULTURE?




Permaculture principles

Permaculture principles are derived from observing nature. They
are things we see happening in natural ecosystems that we want
to copy. We observe nature and try to mimic what it does. The
principles can be viewed as guidelines to follow when we apply
permaculture.

Permaculture practitioners have identified many principles, but we
are going to focus on seven basic principles which will give you
an understanding of the function and importance of permaculture
principles.



Seven principles of permaculture


1. Conservation

Use only what is needed.

For example, a family uses a hand pump, pictured right, for water
on their homestead. The hand pump encourages them to conserve water
and makes them very conscious of how much they are using so they
only use what they actually need. Another example of conserving
water is showering instead of taking a bath.



2. Stacking functions

In permaculture we speak about getting many yields (outputs) from
one element (thing) in your system.

For example, a tree might be an element in your system. A tree can
provide shade, shelter wildlife, produce mulch and building materials,
be a wind break, fertilize the soil, prevent erosion, raise the water
table, etc. A tree can do a lot of different work for us in our system,
and that's what we mean by stacking functions.



3. Repeating functions

We meet every need in multiple ways.

For example, one family meets their household need for water in two ways.
They have a spring, but in very dry years the spring dries up so they need
a backup. They also have a rooftop water catchment system so they can catch
the rainwater running off their roof for domestic purposes.



4. Reciprocity

Utilize the yields of each element to meet the needs of other elements in
the system.

This means there is a give and a take between elements. The output from
one element can be an input for another element. A good example of this
is composting. Kitchen scraps could be an output from our kitchen where
we have left over organic matter and we use that as an input to our
compost pile and when it's in the compost pile it will turn into valuable
fertilizer which we can then put on our garden. And then an output of our
garden is food which would again be an input into the kitchen. So, you can
see that the inputs and the outputs are circulating within our system.



5. Appropriate scale

What we design should be on a human scale and doable with the available
time, skills, and money that we have.

A good example of appropriate scale would be looking at a massive hydroelectric
dam which can severely disrupt the patterns of flow of a river or a stream and
also cause flooding and loss of habitat compared to a small hydroelectric
generator which could be used to generate electricity from a small stream without
diverting the flow, without causing flooding or disruption. So using a micro
hydroelectric generator is probably much more of an "appropriate scale" than
creating a large dam.



6. Diversity

We want to create resilience by utilizing many elements.

We can contrast a garden which has a variety of plants in it with a field
containing only wheat (monocropping). If you have a drought year or a wet
year or if you have a certain kind of pest, all the wheat will probably be
susceptible to the same condition or pest and you might lose your whole crop.
But if you have a system that's mixed, with a variety of crops or plants,
they might not all be susceptible. You might have some plants that are drought
tolerant, others that do better in wetter conditions - if you have a drought
year you'll just lose some of your plants, but you'll still have others that
will do well. So, the idea is that the way to create a resilient system that
can survive and get through difficulties is by having many different elements.



7. Give away the surplus

Create systems that are abundant and share the abundance rather than hoarding
it for ourselves.

An example of this is the perennial plant nursery at Port Street in Baltimore,
MD. When plant nurseries in the local area have extra stock they donate it to
this nursery and the Port Street nursery gives it away for free to community
groups that are doing improvement work in downtown neighborhoods. That's a
really nice way of sharing the abundance.



What are some principles of permaculture?
http://www.heathcote.org/PCIntro/4Principles.htm



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Bio
Differences

https://biodifferences.com/




Quality
Research
International

http://qualityresearchinternational.com/




World
Resources
Institute

https://www.wri.org/




The Tree of Life
Web Project (ToL)

http://tolweb.org/tree/phylogeny.html




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MIMI
https://en.mimi.hu/index.html




Mother Nature Network
MNN

https://www.mnn.com/




CABI
https://www.cabi.org/




APPROPEDIA
SUSTAINABILITY
INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

http://www.appropedia.org/




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Smart Power 4 All
http://www.smartpower4all.org/




Weird Nature
https://www.ranker.com/tags/weird-nature?ref=mainnav




The Plant Encyclopedia
http://theplantencyclopedia.org/wiki/Main_Page





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