ALTERNATIVE
ENERGY
FUELS




REDUCE
REUSE
RECYCLE
RETHINK




ALTERNATIVE
ENERGY


There are a great many ways to obtain energy,
some are large-scale for industrial level. Others
are of a scale small enough to be used by most of
your individual households or small and mid-size
business, along with small or mid-size towns. The
plants come in many sizes as well as many designs.




ENERGY EFFICIENCY

BIOFUEL

BIOFUEL KITS

BIOGAS

ETHANOL

FLEXIBLE FUEL VEHICLES

METHANOL

BIODIESEL

SOYBEANS

SUNFLOWERS

RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

HYDROPOWER

TIDAL WAVE POWER

SOLAR POWER

SOLAR PONDS

WIND POWER

GEOTHERMAL POWER

HYDROGEN FUEL CELL

SYNGAS

HYDROGEN ELECTROLYSIS

COGENERATION

GAS TURBINES

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY FUELS

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY FUELS LINKS

MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC

OFF-GRID POWER

MICRO HYDRO HYDROELECTRIC

SELF-SUFFICIENCY

METHANE HYDRATE

METHANE CLATHRATE

METHANE HYDRATE LINKS

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY LINKS



GLOBAL GREEN
http://www.globalgreen.org/




BACK TO TOP



SECTION 1



ENERGY
EFFICIENCY




ENERGY
Capacity to do work and
transfer heat.


ENERGY EFFICIENCY
Percentage of the total energy input to a
system or process that does useful work.
One way to reduce the cost of energy is
to increase the efficiency with which
we use it.


ENERGY CONSERVATION
Energy conservation involves the
changing of wasteful habits and the
investing in more energy-efficient
buildings, vehicles, and everyday
appliances.


RENEWABLE RESOURCES
Those that can theoretically last
forever. Either they are produced
continuously, or they come from a
source that can essentially never
be exhausted, such as wind, water,
and solar power.




ENERGY
EFFICIENCY
LINKS




ALLIANCE TO SAVE ENERGY
http://www.ase.org/

AMERICAN COUNCIL FOR AN
ENERGY-EFFICIENT ECONOMY
http://www.aceee.org/

ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL
BUILDING ASSOCIATION
http://www.eeba.org/

ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND
RENEWABLE ENERGY
http://www.eere.energy.gov/

ENERGY GUIDE
http://www.energyguide.com/

ENERGY SAVING TRUST
http://www.est.org.uk/

ENERGY STAR
http://www.energystar.gov/

GREEN BUILDING
http://www.greenbuilder.com/

INFINITE ENERGY MAGAZINE
http://www.infinite-energy.com/

RENEWABLE ENERGY POLICY PROJECT
http://www.repp.org/

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF
ENERGY FUEL ECONOMY
http://www.fueleconomy.gov/

WORLD ENERGY EFFICIENCY ORGANIZATION
http://www.weea.org/



BACK TO TOP



SECTION 2



BIOFUEL




BIOFUEL




BIOFUEL
Organic matter that is converted into
fuels by decomposer organism with
the assistance of various chemical
processes. Sometimes it makes sense
to convert biomass into liquid and or
gaseous fuel instead of electricity.




BIOMASS
The organic matter contained in plants
and produced by photosynthesis. In most
parts of the world this is used in the
form of wood, that is burned. Much of the
waste of today is biomass, in the form
of paper and plant products. Biomass
can be converted into fuel by the
method of decomposers, as with biogas,
as most often in the form of methanol,
or by fermentation and distillation,
as with ethanol.




BIOFUEL
LINKS




AMERICAN BIOENERGY ASSOCIATION
http://www.biomass.org/

BIOENERGY INFORMATION NETWORK
http://bioenergy.or.nl.gov/

BIOFUELS FOR SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTION
http://www.biofuels.fsnet.co.uk/

ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY
http://www.eere.energy.gov/

GLOBALSPEC
http://www.globalspec.com/

GREASE WORKS
http://www.greaseworks.org/.org/

GREEN FUELS
http://www.greenfuels.org/

JOURNEY TO FOREVER
http://journeytoforever.org/

NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY
http://www.nrel.gov/

NEOTERIC BIOFUELS INC
http://www.biofuels.ca/

URL.BIZ
http://www.url.biz/

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
http://www.ott.doe.gov/



BACK TO TOP



SECTION 2A



BIOFUEL
KITS




BIOFUEL
KITS
LINKS




ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLE GROUP
http://www.altfuels.com/

THE ARC DIRECTORY
http://www.thearcdirectory.com/

BIOFUEL SYSTEMS
http://www.biofuelsystems.com/

BIO-POWER
http://www.biopower.co.uk/

EILISH OILS
http://www.eilishoils.com/

FREE ENERGY NEWS
http://www.freeenergynews.com/

GOOD GREASE
http://www.goodgrease.com/

NEOTERIC BIOFUELS INC
http://www.biofuels.ca/

NEW LIFE JOURNAL
http://www.newlifejournal.com/



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SECTION 2B



BIOGAS




BIOGAS
A mixture of methane and carbon dioxide,
these digesters are fermenting vats where
bacteria convert plant and animal waste
into biogas. This gas can be used for the
purpose of heating and cooking along with
other small scale purposes.




BIOGAS
LINKS




CLEAN ENERGY RESOURCE TEAMS
http://www.cleanenergyresourceteams.org/

ECO SERVICES INTERNATIONAL
http://www.eco-web.com/

GLOBAL SPEC
http://www.designinfo.com/

GREEN TRUST
http://www.greentrust.server300.com/

JR WHIPPLE
http://www.jrwhipple.com/

NORDIC FOLKECENTER FOR
RENEWABLE ENERGY
http://www.folkecenter.net/

OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC
AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION
http://www.osti.gov/

RCM DIGESTERS
http://www.rcmdigesters.com/

SOLAR ENGINEERING
http://www.solarengineering.co.za/

UNDP
http://www.undp.org/

VALLEY AIR SOLUTIONS
http://www.valleyairsolutions.com/

WASTE 2 PROFITS
http://www.waste2profits.com/



BACK TO TOP



SECTION 2C



ETHANOL




ETHANOL
Produced from crops that contain sugar,
such as sugarcane, sugar beets, sorghum,
and maize. this is done in the same way
others use to ferment and distill most
alcoholic beverages.




ETHANOL
LINKS




AMERICAN COALITION FOR ETHANOL
http://www.ethanol.org/

THE DISTILLERY AND FUEL ETHANOL NETWORK
http://www.distill.com/

ETHANOL INDIA
http://www.ethanolindia.net/

ETHANOL MARKET PLACE
http://www.ethanolmarketplace.com/

ETHANOL PRODUCERS AND CONSUMERS
http://www.ethanolmt.org/

FREE ENERGY NEWS
http://www.freeenergynews.com/

RENEWABLE FUEL ASSOCIATION
http://www.ethanolrfa.org/

TALL CORN ETHANOL
http://www.tallcornethanol.com/

NATIONAL CORN GROWERS ASSOCIATION
http://www.ncga.com/



BACK TO TOP


SECTION 2C1



FLEXIBLE
FUEL
VEHICLES
FFV




FLEXIBLE FUEL VEHICLES
E85 FLEET TOOLKITS

FFV are vehicles that can use
up tp 85% ethanol fuel.




FLEXIBLE
FUEL
VEHICLES
FFV
LINKS




E-85 NATIONAL ETHANOL VEHICLE COALITION
http://www.e85fuel.com/

ETHANOL ACROSS AMERICA
http://www.ethanolacrossamerica.net/

GOVERNORS ETHANOL COALITION
http://www.ethanol-gec.org/

IOWA CORN
http://www.iowacorn.org/

STANDARD ALCOHOL COMPANY
http://www.standardalcohol.com/

VE 85
http://www.ve85.com/



BACK TO TOP



SECTION 2D



METHANOL




METHANOL
Methane is produced naturally by
anaerobic decomposers in any pile
of organic matter not exposed to
air. Your local landfill produces
methane gas everyday.




METHANOL
LINKS




AG INNOVATION NEWS
http://www.auri.org/

BIOREALIS SYSTEMS
http://www.biorealis.com/

ECOGENICS
http://www.dabney.com/ecogenics/default.htm/

ECOLOGICAL FARMING ASSOCIATION
http://www.eco-farm.org/

FACTORY FARM
http://www.factoryfarm.org/

OTHER POWER
http://www.otherpower.com/

THE PRAIRIE STAR
http://www.theprairiestar.com/

TALK ENERGY
http://www.talkenergy.com/



BACK TO TOP



SECTION 2E



BIODIESEL




Biodiesel, bio, diesel, bio-diesel,
bioking, gear, reactor, vessel, fuel,
equipment, diesel, toolsinformation,
processor, manufacturing, fuel, oil,
transesterifacation, recipes, gear,
turnkey, plants, jatropha, plantage,
plantagion, reactor, reactors, expeller,
mill, oilmill, screw, screwoil, small,
medium, large scale for uses in homes.




BIODIESEL

Is an alternative to petroleum based
diesel fuel and is made from renewable
resources such as vegetable oils
animal fats or algae. Chemically,
it is a fuel comprised of a mix of
mono alkylesters of long chain
fatty acids.



Transesterification.


A transesterification production
process is used to convert the base
oil to the desired esters and
remove free fatty acids. After this
processing, unlike straight vegetable
oil, biodiesel has very similar
combustion properties to petroleum
diesel, and can replace it in most
current uses. However, it is most
often used as an additive to
petroleum diesel.



Plant oil is highly valued as Bio fuel
"Diesel" and transformed into Bio Diesel
in most industrialise.

Biodiesel refers to a diesel-equivalent,
processed fuel derived from biological
sources.
Though derived from biological sources,
it is a processed fuel that can be readily
used in diesel-engined vehicles, which can
distinguishe biodiesel from the straight
vegetable oils (SVO) or waste vegetable
oils (WVO) used as fuels in some modified
diesel vehicles.

Biodiesel can also be used as a heating fuel
in domestic and commercial boilers.

Vegetable oils are also the basis of biodiesel,
which can be used like conventional diesel, and
SVO (straight vegetable oil), which can be used
in specially prepared vehicle engines.



Other significant
triglyceride oils
include:



Cottonseed:
A major food oil,
often used in the
industrial food
processing.

Palm:
The most widely
produced tropical
oil. Also used to
make Biofuel.


Palm Kernel:
Seed of the African
palm tree.

Rapeseed:
One of the most widely
used cooking oils,
Canola is a variety
cultivar of rapeseed.

Olive:
Used in cooking cosmetics
soaps fuel for traditional
oil lamps.

Peanut:
Mild-flavored cooking oil.

Soybeans:
Accounts for about half
of worldwide edible oil
production.

Sunflowerseed:
A common cooking oil.

Sunflowerseed:
A common cooking oil.




Other significant
plant oils
include:



Corn oil,
one of the most common,
and inexpensive cooking
oils.

Hazelnut and
other nut oils.

Linseed oil,
from flax seeds.

Rice bran oil,
from rice grains.

Safflower oil,
a flavorless and
colorless cooking
oil.

Sesame oil,
used as a cooking oil,
and as a massage oil.



Bio Diesel is asubstitute for,
or an additive to, diesel fuel
that is derived from the oils
and fats of plants, like:


Sunflower,
Canola,
Jatropha.


It is an alternative fuel that
can be used in diesel engines
and provides power similar to
conventional diesel fuel.



Multipurpose oils
also used as biofuel:


These oils are primarily used for
other purposes - all but tung oil
are edible but have been considered
for use as biofuel.


Castor oil,
lower cost than many candidates.
Kinematic viscosity may be an
issue.

Coconut oil
(copra oil),
promising for local use in
places that produce coconuts.

Corn oil,
appealing because of the
abundance of maize as a crop.

Cottonseed oil,
shown in one study not to be
cost effective when compared
with standard diesel.

False flax oil,
from Camelina sativa, used in Europe
in oil lamps until the 18th century.

Hemp oil,
relatively low in emissions. High
flash point. Production is problematic
in some countries because of its
association with marijuana.

Mustard oil,
shown to be comparable to
Canola oil as a biofuel.

Palm oil,
very popular for biofuel, but the
environmental impact from growing
large quantities of oil palms has
recently called the use of palm
oil into question.

Peanut oil,
used in one of the first
demonstrations of the
Diesel engine in 1900.

Radish oil,
Wild radish contains up to 48% oil,
making it appealing as a fuel.

Rapeseed oil,
the most common base oil used in
Europe in biodiesel production.

Ramtil oil,
used for lighting in India.

Rice bran oil,
appealing because of lower cost
than many other vegetable oils.
Widely grown in Asia.

Safflower oil,
explored recently as a biofuel
in Montana.

Soybean oil,
not economical as a fuel crop,
but appealing as a byproduct of
soybean crops for other uses.

Sunflower oil,
suitable as a fuel, but not
necessarily cost effective.

Tung oil,
referenced in several lists of
vegetable oils that are suitable
for biodiesel.



Inedible oils used
only or primarily
as biofuel:


These oils are extracted from plants
that are cultivated solely for producing
oil-based biofuel. Some oils have received
much more attention as fuel oils than other
plant oils.


Copaiba,
an oleoresin tapped from species of genus
Copaifera. Used in Brazil as a major source
of biodiesel.


Honge oil,
pioneered as a biofuel by Udipi Shrinivasa
in Bangalore, India.


Jatropha oil,
widely used in India as a fuel oil. Has
attracted strong proponents for use as
a biofuel.


Jojoba oil,
from the Simmondsia chinensis, a desert
shrub.


Milk bush,
popularized by chemist Melvin Calvin in
the 1950s. Researched in the 1980s by
PetroBras, the Brazilian national
petroleum company.


Petroleum nut oil,
from the Petroleum nut native to the
Philippines. The Philippine government
once explored the use of the petroleum
nut as a biofuel.



Major oils:

Sunflowers,
are the source of Sunflower oil.These oils
account for a significant fraction of world
wide edible oil production. All are also
used as fuel oils.


Coconut oil,
a cooking oil, high in saturated fat,
particularly used in baking and cosmetics.


Corn oil,
a common cooking oil with little odor or
taste.


Cottonseed oil,
used in manufacturing potato chips and
other snack foods. Very low in trans-fats.


Canola oil,
a variety of rapeseed oil,
one of the most widely used cooking
oils, from a cultivar of rapeseed.


Olive oil,
used in cooking, cosmetics, soaps, and
as a fuel for traditional oil lamps.


Palm oil,
the most widely produced tropical oil.
Also used to make biofuel.

Peanut oil
Ground nut oil,

a clear oil used for dressing salads and,
due to its high smoke point, especially
used for frying.


Safflower oil,
produced for export for over 50 years,
first for use in paint industry, now
mostly as a cooking oil.


Sesame oil,
cold pressed as light cooking oil, hot
pressed for a darker and stronger flavor.


Soybean oil,
produced as a byproduct of processing
soy meal.


Sunflower oil,
a common cooking oil, also used to
make biodiesel.




BIODIESEL
LINKS




BIODIESEL
http://www.biodiesel.org/

Biodiesel
http://www.wvodesigns.com/wiki/Biodiesel

Biodiesel
http://www.wvodesigns.com/wiki/Biodiesel

BIODIESEL AMERICA
http://www.biodieselamerica.org/

BIODIESEL NOW
http://www.biodieselnow.com/

BIODIESEL RESOURCES
http://www.partsgeek.com/parts/biodiesel_resource_page.html/

BIODIESEL URUGUAY
http://www.biodiesel-uruguay.com/

BIODIESEL WAREHOUSE
http://www.biodieselwarehouse.com/

BRITISH ASSOCIATION
FOR BIOFUEL AND OIL
http://www.biodiesel.co.uk/

DIESEL VEG
http://www.dieselveg.com/

ELECTRICITY BOOK
http://www.electricitybook.com/

JOURNEY TO FOREVER
http://www.journeytoforever.org/

NATIONAL BIODIESEL BOARD
http://www.nbb.org/

VEGGIE VAN
http://www.veggievan.org/



SECTION 2E1



SOY
BEANS




SOYBEANS
A small, light-colored bean grown as a major
farm crop. Soybeans are a important protein-
rich food and used to make tofu. The oil is
removed and used in margarine, paints and
other uses. The remaining meal is fed to
livestock or made into flour. The plant
this bean grows on, is used to feed the
cattle.


SOY SAUCE
Made from fermented soy beans.

TOFU
Food somewhat like cheese, made from the
curds of the milk of ground soy beans.




SOY BEANS
links




SOY GROWERS
http://www.soygrowers.com/

SOY WORLD
http://www.soyworld.com/

UNITED SOYBEANS BOARD
http://www.unitedsoybean.org/

UNITED SOY BOARD
http://www.talksoy.com/



BACK TO TOP



SECTION 2E2



SUNFLOWERS




SUNFLOWERS

Any of the several tall plants that have
large yellow flowers with brown centers.
Sunflowers seeds are used as food and to
produce oil for cooking and fuel.




BIODIESEL
LINKS




BDPedia.com
Biodiesel WWW Encyclopedia

http://www.bdpedia.com/

Biodiesel Magazine
http://www.biodieselmagazine.com/

BIO-ENERGY SERVICES
http://www.bio-energy-services.com/

BioForce Corporation
http://www.bioforcecorporation.com/

BIOKING
http://www.bioking.nl/

Castor Oil.in
http://www.castoroil.in/

Hempcar.org
http://www.hempcar.org/

GARDENERS NET
http://www.gardenersnet.com/

GROW NATIVE
http://www.grownative.org/

Jatropha
http://www.jatropha.de/

jatrophaworld
http://www.jatrophaworld.org/

Oilgae.com
http://www.oilgae.com/

RENEE'S GARDEN
http://www.reneesgarden.com/

SEEDS OF KNOWLEDGE
http://www.seedsofknowledge.com/

Smiling Earth Energy
http://www.se-energy.com/

Spokane County Conservation District
http://www.sccd.org/

SUNFLOWERS.COM
http://www.sunflowers.com/



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SECTION 3



RENEWABLE
ENERGY
SOURCES




RENEWABLE
ENERGY
SOURCES


Renewable energy
(sources) or RES:
capture their energy from
existing flows of energy,
from on-going natural
processes, such as:


sunshine,
wind,
flowing water (hydropower),
biological processes,
geothermal heat flows.


The most common definition is that
renewable energy is from an energy
resource that is replaced rapidly
by a natural process such as power
generated from the sun or from the
wind. It is a subset of sustainable
energy.

Most renewable forms of energy, other
than geothermal and tidal power,
ultimately come from the sun. Some
forms are stored solar energy such as
rainfall and wind power which are
considered short-term solar-energy
storage, whereas the energy in biomass
is accumulated over a period of months,
as in straw, or through many years as
in wood.
Capturing renewable energy by plants,
animals and humans does not permanently
deplete the resource.

Fossil fuels, while theoretically
renewable on a very long time-scale, are
exploited at rates that may deplete these
resources in the near future.




BACK TO TOP



SECTION 3A



HYDROPOWER




HYDROELECTRIC

Hydro:
means water.

Hydro-electric means:
making electricity
from water power.


Hydroelectric power uses the kinetic
energy of moving water to make
electricity.
Most hydroelectric power comes from
the potential energy of dammed water
driving a water turbine and generator,
although less common variations use
water's kinetic energy or dammed
sources, such as tidal power.
Hydroelectricity is a renewable energy
source.

The energy extracted from water depends
not only on the volume but on the
difference in height between the source
and the water's outflow.
This height difference is called the head.
The amount of potential energy in water is
proportional to the head.
To obtain very high head, water for a
hydraulic turbine may be run through a large
pipe called a penstock.


HYDROPOWER

Power from water, and has provided
people with power for things like
water pumps and mills for thousands
of years. The use of turbines now
are part of a system to generate
electricity. While hydropower is a
clean energy source, it requires
expensive dams that flood vast areas.




HYDRO-PNEUMATIC POWER
HELICAL TURBINES
ALEXANDER GORLOV




Gorlov's helical turbine consists of blades
twisted into a helix, which is the shape of
a DNA molecule. The turbine's blades rotate
at twice the velocity of the water current's
flow rate and they capture 75 percent more
of the water's energy than a conventional
turbine. He works at Northeastern University.


NORTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY
http://www.northeastern.edu/



HYDROPOWER
LINKS




BRITISH HYDROPOWER ASSOCIATION
http://www.british-hydro.org/

FOUNDATION FOR WATER
AND ENERGY EDUCATION
http://www.fwee.org/

HYDRO RESEARCH FOUNDATION
http://www.hydrofoundation.org/

IDAHO NATION ENGINEERING AND
ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY
http://www.inel.gov/

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY
IEA HYDROPOWER
http://www.ieahydro.org/

NATIONAL HYDROPOWER ASSOCIATION
http://www.hydro.org/

WORLD ENERGY COUNCIL
http://www.worldenergy.org/



BACK TO TOP



SECTION 3B



TIDAL
WAVE
POWER




TIDAL WAVE POWER
A means of electricity generation achieved
by capturing the energy contained in moving
water mass due to tides.

Two types of tidal energy can be extracted:
1. kinetic energy of currents due to the tides.
2. potential energy from the difference in
height or between high and low tides.




TIDAL
WAVE
POWER
LINKS




CAL POLY
http://www.calpoly.edu/

FUJITA RESEARCH
http://www.fujita.com/

RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR
SUSTAINABLE ENERGY
http://www.rise.org.au/

TIDAL ELECTRIC
http://www.tidalelectric.com/

UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH
http://www.ed.ac.uk/



BACK TO TOP



SECTION 4



SOLAR
POWER




SOLAR
POWER

Converts sunlight directly into electrical
energy. This system can be engineered for
almost any application. A reliable and
renewable, cost efficient way to produce
energy.




SOLAR
POWER
LINKS




ADVANCED ENERGY GROUP
http://www.solar4power.com/

Complete Solar Systems
http://www.letsgosolar.com/solar-panels/home-and-residential/complete-systems/

EPSEA
http://www.epsea.org/

GO SOLAR POWER
http://www.gosolarpower.com/

HOME POWER MAGAZINE
http://www.homepower.com/

How to Choose a Solar Panel Installer
http://www.letsgosolar.com/solar-panels/companies/installers/

Lets Go Solar
http://www.letsgosolar.com/

SOLAR ELECTRIC POWER
http://www.solarelectricpower.org/

SOLAR ELECTRIC POWER ASSOCIATION
http://www.solarpower.com/

Top Solar Companies
http://www.letsgosolar.com/solar-panels/companies/



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SECTION 4A



SOLAR
PONDS




SOLAR PONDS
SALT AND FRESHWATER

A pond that is enclosed, which act
like a greenhouse, increasing the
sun's power to heat the water. This
water can be used to supply heated
water for homes and provide energy.




SOLAR
PONDS
LINKS




BP PRESS
http://www.bp.com/

THE ENERGY AND RESOURCE INSTITUTE
http://www.teriin.org/

ROCKY FLATS ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY
http://www.rtdf.org/

SALINITY GRADIENT SOLAR POND
http://www.solarpond.utep.edu/

SOLAR PONDS
http://www.solarponds.com/



BACK TO TOP



SECTION 5



WIND
POWER




WIND MILLS
There is enough energy in the winds
on earth to generate more than ten
times the electricity now used
worldwide. wind can be used to do
work directly by powering a water
pump or generate electricity.




WIND
POWER
LINKS




AMERICAN WIND
ENERGY ASSOCIATION

http://www.awea.org/

AMERICAN WIND
POWER CENTER

http://www.windmill.com/

BACKWOODS SOLAR
ELECTRIC SYSTEMS

http://www.backwoodssolar.com/

DANISH WIND
INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION

http://www.windpower.org/

ECOTRICITY
http://www.ecotricity.co.uk/

ENERGY QUEST
http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/

OTHER POWER
http://www.otherpower.com/

WIND SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
RESEARCH CENTER

http://www.wind.ttu.edu/

WINDMILL WORLD
http://www.windmillworld.com/



OFF
SHORE
WIND
POWER




OFF
SHORE
WIND
POWER
LINKS




LONG ISLAND OFFSHORE
WIND INITIATIVE

http://www.lioffshorewindenergy.org/

OFF SHORE WIND FARMS
http://www.offshorewindfarms.co.uk/

OFF SHORE WIND ENERGY
http://www.offshorewindenergy.org/



BACK TO TOP



SECTION 6



GEOTHERMAL
POWER




GEOTHERMAL
Which is heat from molten rock. Some
of which can be tapped for energy.

Geothermal Energy has been around
for as long as the Earth has existed.

"GEO"
means earth,

"THERMAL"
means heat.

So, geothermal means earth-heat. In some
areas water has been trapped far below the
surface and turned to steam. The steam can
be used for heating or to run steam-electric
generater. These zone are few in numbers.




GEOTHERMAL
POWER
LINKS




CANADIAN GEOTHERMAL
ENERGY ASSOCIATION

http://www.geothermal.ca/

ENERGY QUEST
http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY ASSOCIATION
http://www.geo-energy.org/

GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES COUNCIL
http://www.geothermal.org/



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SECTION 7



HYDROGEN
FUEL
CELL




FUEL CELL
A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy
conversion device that converts hydrogen
and oxygen into water, heat and electricity.
There are three main components in a fuel
cell system:
1. The hydrogen fuel reformer.
2. The fuel stack.
3. The power conditioner.
Operating without internal combustion,
fuel cells are virtually pollution free.




HYDROGEN
FUEL
CELL
LINKS




FUEL CELLS
http://www.fuelcells.org/

FUEL CELL KNOWLEDGE
http://www.fuelcellknowledge.org/

FUEL CELL MARKETS
http://www.fuelcellmarkets.com/

NATIONAL FUEL CELL
RESEARCH CENTER

http://www.nfcrc.uci.edu/

FUEL CELL ONLINE
http://www.fuelcellonline.com/

FUEL CELL TODAY
http://www.fuelcelltoday.com/

HYDROGEN FUELL
CELL INVESTOR

http://www.h2fc.com/

HYDROGEN AND FUEL
CELL LETTER

http://www.hfcletter.com/

TUV RHEINLAND OF
NORTH AMERICA

http://www.us.tuv.com/

US FUEL CELL COUNCIL
http://www.usfcc.com/

WORLD FUEL CELL COUNCIL
http://www.fuelcellworld.org/



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SECTION 8



SYNGAS




SYNGAS
A mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen.
Syngas can be burned as a fuel, or it can be
used to manufacture other fuels, such as hydrogen,
methanol and gasoline. Snygas is usually made from
biomass, any kind of plant material. When biomass
is heated in the absence of air and the presence
of steam, it is converted into syngas.




SYNGAS
LINKS




ADVANCED ENERGY RESEARCH
http://www.advancedenergyresearch.com/

BIOMASS SYNGAS DEVELOPMENT
http://www.biosyngasdev.com/

ENERKEM
http://www.enerkem.com/

MICRO-CATS
http://www.pnl.gov/microcats/

ONE SYNGAS
http://www.one-syngas.com/

SYNGAS REFINER
http://www.syngasrefiner.com/

THIELSCH ENGINEERING
http://www.thielsch.com/

UOP
http://www.uop.com/



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SECTION 9



HYDROGEN
ELECTROLYSIS




HYDROGEN
Hydrogen can be made from water by
electrolysis, which means passing an
electric current through a substance
to separate it into positively and
negatively charged components.




HYDROGEN
ELECTROLYSIS
LINKS




ELECTROLYSIS WEB
DIRECTORY AND RESOURCES

http://www.electrolysisadvice.com//

GLOBAL IDEAS BANK
http://www.globalideasbank.org/

THE GURU'S LAIR
http://www.tinaja.com/

HYWEB
http://www.hydrogen.org/

NEW MEXICO SOLAR
ENERGY ASSOCIATION

http://www.nmsea.org/

OVONICS
http://www.ovonic.com/

STUART ENERGY
http://www.stuartenergy.com/

THEODORE GRAY
http://www.theodoregray.com/

THOMAS B2B
http://www.thomasb2b.com/



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SECTION 10



COGENERATION




COGENERATION
Electricity generation together with
some other use of energy. The most
efficient way for an industry to
make use of energy from the waste
of biomass is to install cogenera-
tion units. The industry burns the
biomass for heating the buildings or
boilers. In addition, it uses any
excess heat to generate electricity.




COGENERATION
LINKS




ADVANCE BUILDING
http://www.advancebuilding.org/

CHEMISTRY OF ENERGY
http://www.chemistryofenergy.com/

COGENERATION TECHNOLOGIES
http://www.cogeneration.net/

ENERGETECH
http://www.energetech.com/

GEN TEK ENERGY
http://www.gentekenergy.com/

NATIONAL PETROCHEMICAL &
REFINERS ASSOCIATION

http://www.npra.org/

NEDERLANDS MEETINSTITUUT
http://www.nmi.nl/

POWER-TECHNOLOGY
http://www.power-technology.com/

TEDOM MAGAZINE
http://www.tedom.com/



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SECTION 11



GAS
TURBINES




GAS TURBINES
To use the pressure of steam
or gas to drive propellers and
produce torque. This is more
efficient to use the hot gases
from burning biomass directly
to generate electricity.




GAS
TURBINES
LINKS




DIESEL AND GAS
TURBINE PUBLICATION

http://www.dieselpub.com/

ENERGETECH
http://www.energetech.com/

THE GAS TURBINE
BUILDERS ASSOCIATION

http://www.gtba.co.uk/

INTERNATIONAL GAS
TURBINE INSTITUTE

http://www.asme.org/igti/

MASS ENGINEERS
http://www.massengineers.com/

WREN TURBINES
http://www.wren-turbines.com/



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SECTION 12



OCEAN
THERMAl
ENERGY
CONVERSION




OCEAN THERMAL
ENERGY CONVERSION

A vast amount of solar energy is stored
in the oceans as heat. Experiments focus
on generating electricity from the large
temperature difference that occurs in the
tropical seas between surface and the depths
of the ocean. This is the same principle as
in the heat pump.





OCEAN
THERMAL
ENERGY
CONVERSION
LINKS




NEARCTICA
http://www.nearctica.com/

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY
CONVERSION NEWS

http://www.otecnews.org/

PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR
HIGH TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH

http://www.pichtr.org/

THE SEA SOLAR
POWER INTERNATIONAL

http://www.seasolarpower.com/

WORLD ENERGY COUNCIL
http://www.worldenergy.org/



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SECTION 13



ALTERNATIVE
ENERGY
FUELS




ALTERNATIVE ENERGY FUELS
The use of non-fossil fuels.

FOSSIL FUELS
Fossil fuels include coal, petroleum
(usually called oil), and natural gas.
Most fossil fuels took millions of years
to produce, and the condition that
produced them are gone. So when these
fuels are used up, they will be gone.




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SECTION 13A



ALTERNATIVE
ENERGY
FUELS
LINKS




ALTERNATIVE FUEL DATA CENTER
http://www.eere.energy.gov/

EE-ONE
http://www.ee-one.com/

ENERGY RESOURCES
http://www.darvill.clara.net/

HOME POWER
http://www.homepower.com/

HOME POWER E-BOOK
http://www.electricitybook.com/

RENEWABLE FUELS ASSOCIATION
http://www.ethanolrfa.org/



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SECTION 14



MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC




MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC
Conventional generators produce electricity
by passing wires through magnetic fields. A
magnetohydrodynamic generator replaces the
wires with a current-conducting fluid with
pressure by heat to pass through the fields.
Since no moving parts are used, the process
is move efficient than conventional used
generators, with less heat lost




MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC
LINKS




DELPHION
http://www.delphion.com/

MHD SYSTEMS
http://www.mhdsystems.com/

NUENERGY HORIZONS
http://www.nuenergy.org/

OTHER POWER
http://www.otherpower.com/

WONDER MAGNET
http://www.wondermagnet.com/



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SECTION 15



OFF-GRID
POWER




OFF-GRID SYSTEMS

Systems that will let you have a
energy source without drawing
energy from a power plant. The
renewable energy that will be
a sustainable solution and use
solar, wind and other systems
for small and medium uses.


Off Grid Living refers to a
self-sufficient lifestyle
where the participant's home
is not connected to any outside
electricity or water supplies.

It can also mean only consuming
home-grown food products.
Typically the home will be situated
near a natural source of water which
can also be used for hydroelectric
power, or electricity can be supplied
by solar or wind power.




OFF-GRID
POWER
LINKS




EARTH HOUSE
http://www.earth-house.com/

ENERGY CONSERVATION INFO
http://www.energyconservationinfo.org/

HOME POWER MAGAZINE
http://www.homepower.com/

OFF-GRID
http://www.off-grid.net/

OFF-GRID ENERGY
http://www.offgridenergy.com/

POSITIVE ENERGY
http://www.positiveenergy.com/

RENEWABLE POWER
http://www.renewablepower.com/

SOLAR BUZZ
http://www.solarbuzz.com/

SOLAR VILLAGE
http://www.solarvillage.com/



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SECTION 16



MICRO
HYDRO
HYDROELECTRIC




MICRO
HYDRO
HYDROELECTRIC


Micro Hydro is a term used for
hydroelectric power installations
that typically produce up to 100kW
of energy.
They are often used in water rich
areas as a Remote Area Power Supply
(RAPS). There are many of these
installations around the world,
including several delivering around
50kW in the Solomon Islands, supplying
energy for small communities.

Micro hydro is frequently accomplished
with a pelton wheel for high head, low
flow water supply.

Micro hydro systems can complement your
photovoltaic solar energy systems because
in many areas, water flow, and thus
available hydro power, is highest in the
winter when solar energy is at a minimum.




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SECTION 17



SELF-SUFFICIENCY




SELF-SUFFICIENCY

Self-sufficiency refers to the state
of not requiring any outside aid,
support, or (in hardline cases)
interaction, for survival; it is
therefore a type of extreme personal
or collective (group-based) autonomy.

Self-sufficiency is usually applied
to varieties of sustainable living
in which nothing is consumed outside
of what is produced by the
self-sufficient individuals.

Examples of attempts at self-sufficiency
in North America include:


voluntary simplicity,
Luddism,
homesteading,
survivalism,
Back to the land movement.


Practices that enable or
aid self-sufficiency include:


autonomous building,
permaculture,
sustainable agriculture,
renewable energy.




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SECTION 18



METHANE
HYDRATE




Methane hydrate is formed when water
molecules freeze around a molecule
of methane gas.

It is typically found in two distinct
geologic areas—on land in the subsurface
sediments of permafrost regions, or in
oceanic sediments under at least 450
meters of water.


Pressure,

temperature,

availability of water,

methane,

are the determining
factors in how much
hydrate develops.




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SECTION 18A



METHANE
CLATHRATE




Methane clathrate,
Methane hydrate,
Methane ice,


is a form of water ice that contains
a large amount of methane within its
crystal structure (clathrate hydrate).

Originally thought to occur only in
the outer regions of the solar system
where temperatures are low and water
ice is common, the extremely large
deposits of methane clathrate have
been found under sediments on the
ocean floors of Earth.



Real Climate
http://www.realclimate.org/



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SECTION 18B



METHANE
LINKS




American Geophysical Union
http://www.agu.org/

ENERGY CONNECT
http://www.energyconnect.com/

Energy Information Administration - EIA
http://www.eia.doe.gov/

Geotimes
http://www.geotimes.org/

IFM-GEOMAR DE.
http://www.ifm-geomar.de/

Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute
http://www.mbari.org/

Real Climate
http://www.realclimate.org/

U.S. Department of Energy National
Energy Technology Laboratory

http://www.netl.doe.gov/

U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Fossil Energy

http://www.fe.doe.gov/



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SECTION 19



ALTERNATIVE
ENERGY
LINKS




Alternative Energy
http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/

The British Hydropower Association
http://www.british-hydro.org/

Center for Renewable Energy
and Sustainable Technology

http://www.crest.org/

Discover Solar Energy
http://www.discoversolarenergy.com/

Energy Alternatives
http://www.energyalternatives.ca/

ENERGY CONNECT
http://www.energyconnect.com/

Energy Information Administration - EIA
http://www.eia.doe.gov/

Energy Savings Trust
http://www.est.org.uk/

Free Patents Online
http://www.freepatentsonline.com/

Geotimes
http://www.geotimes.org/

Hydro Generation
http://www.hydrogeneration.co.uk/

Home Power Systems
http://www.homepower.ca/

Leonardo ENERGY
http://www.leonardo-energy.org/

Microhydro web portal
http://www.microhydropower.net/

Micropower
http://www.micropower.co.uk/

OTHER POWER
http://www.otherpower.com/

Real Climate
http://www.realclimate.org/

Rocky Mountain Institute
http://www.rmi.org/

Solar Energy International
http://www.solarenergy.org/

The Solar Guide
http://www.thesolarguide.com/

Solar Wind Works
http://www.solarwindworks.com/

U.S. Department of Energy National
Energy Technology Laboratory

http://www.netl.doe.gov/

U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Fossil Energy

http://www.fe.doe.gov/



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ALTERNATIVE SUSTAINABLE BUILDING


CODEX


GREEN INDEX


GREEN ROOFS


GREEN SUB-INDEX


HOME


E-MAIL




APPROPEDIA
SUSTAINABILITY
INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

http://www.appropedia.org/




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